Anaesthesia / Anaesthetic : is a state of condition when a patient remains unconscious for a while till he is operated by a doctor in a relaxed and pain-free atmosphere.

Anonymous : means without name or identification.

Antenatal : before birth.

Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) : is a female hormone released by the ovaries and is related to the development of follicles. A female is tested for this hormone to check the remaining egg supply or ovarian reserve.

Antisperm Antibodies : is a substance produced by men that works against sperm and prevents it from reaching an egg to occur fertilization

Assisted Reproduction / Conception : using advanced medical techniques to enable the conception and birth of a child. It is also called as third party reproduction.

Biopsy : is done to diagnose the disease by removing the tissue sample for examination.

Blastocyst : the early stage of an embryo.

Body Mass Index (BMI) : is used to measure the body fat based on height and weight.

Caesarean Section : an operation to deliver a baby by making an incision (cut) through the mother’s abdomen and womb.

Catheter : a thin, sterile tube.

Cervix : is the lower part of the womb which forms a narrow canal that opens into the vagina.

Chemotherapy : the medications used to treat cancer patients.

Conception : is the process of achieving pregnancy (conceiving).

Embryo : is created from the gametes (unborn child) and is developing in the womb.

Epididymis : is a coiled tube within the scrotum that stores sperm, transporting it from the testes to the vas deferens (the tube that takes sperm from the testes to the penis).

Fallopian Tubes : Women have two fallopian tubes through which an egg passes from the ovaries to the womb.

Fibroids : are the benign (non-cancerous) tumours made of muscle and fibrous tissue that grow in and around the womb.

Follicles : small sacs of fluid within the ovary where eggs develop.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) : is a hormone that regulates the functions of the ovaries and testes. If the hormone is produced very less, infertility or subfertility is caused in men and women.

Genetic Disorder : is a hereditary disease, caused by the changes or mutations in the DNA that make up a gene. For example cystic fibrosis.

Gynaecological / Gynaecology : is relating to the health of women’s reproductive system (vagina, womb, ovaries and the breasts).

HCG (Pregnancy Hormone) : human Chorionic Gonadotropin, is a female hormone produced during pregnancy.

Hysterosalpingogram : a type of X-ray used to examine the inside of the womb and fallopian tubes.

Hysteroscopy : Hysteroscopy is a procedure that involves insertion of a narrow telescope-like instrument through the vagina and cervix into the cavity of the uterus (endometrial cavity). The uterine cavity is then distended with fluid and visualized.

Incubator : is a device where eggs and embryos are kept and is maintained in a constant temperature.

Insemination : when a sperm is inserted into the womb to achieve pregnancy.

Laparoscopy / Laparoscopic Surgery : a type of minimally invasive procedure where a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) is inserted through a small cut in the abdominal wall to diagnose and treat a number of conditions.

Luteinising Hormone (LH) : is a hormone essential for fertility and is produced by gonadotropic cells. This hormone regulates the ovaries in women and testes in men.

Menstrual Cycle : the cycle of changes in the women to prepare for ovulation, fertilization of an egg, and pregnancy.

Oestrogen : is an essential female hormone produced in the ovaries along with progesterone. This hormone assesses the female characteristics, sexual function, bone health, ovulation and reproduction.

Ovarian Cyst : a fluid-filled sac that forms on the ovary.

Ovary : one of a pair of ovaries, women’s reproductive glands; they are involved in producing the sex hormones (including oestrogen and progesterone) that control reproduction.

Ovulation : when the follicle releases a mature egg which then travels down the fallopian tube to be fertilized by sperm.

Pregnancy Test : this measures the amount of hCG (pregnancy hormone) in the urine.

Premature Labour : going into labour before 37 weeks of pregnancy.

Progesterone : is a female hormone produced in the ovaries, and helps the body to prepare for conception and pregnancy, as well as regulating periods.

Prolactin : produced by the pituitary gland, this hormone enables milk production as well as other functions including playing an essential role in the metabolism and regulating the immune system.

Radiotherapy : a treatment using high energy radiation, often used in cancer therapy

Scrotum : a small sac of skin and muscle that contains the testicles.

Self-insemination : to inject semen into the vagina in order to achieve a pregnancy.

Semen : is a fluid secreted by the male reproductive organs (penis) which contains sperm. Semen Analysis is done to check male fertility.

Speculum : a medical instrument that holds the vagina open during an internal examination.

Sterilization (Vasectomy) : a procedure to cut the vas deferens (the tube that takes sperm from the testes to the penis) so sperm cannot be ejaculated during sex. It is a permanent type of contraception.

Testes : male reproductive glands that produce and store sperm.

Testicular Tissue : tissue surrounding the testes.

Testosterone : Testosterone is a hormone produced by the testicles and is responsible for the proper development of male sexual characteristics.

Transvaginal Ultrasound Scan : is an internal ultrasound. It involves scanning with the ultrasound probe lying in the vagina used to carry out a pelvic ultrasound scan. A woman is asked to empty bladder first, before lying on your back with your legs apart where they can rest in specially designed holders. The slim ultrasound probe will then be covered and lubricated before being gently inserted into the vagina. The image appears on a screen and the probe is moved gently about to identify the individual structures so that measurements and images can be taken.

Ultrasound Scan (Pregnancy) : a scan that uses sound waves to check the health of a baby in the womb and detect any abnormalities.

Vulva : the external genital organs of a woman.

Womb (Uterus) : the organ in a woman where babies are conceived and grow until birth.


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